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  • Since ancient times, scientists have collected songs, proverbs, stories, studied the customs and rituals of different peoples. They were also very interested in household items, costumes, utensils, tools and jewelry. All these are the monuments of folk art. And it is them that ethnography studies. Read more here:

    Ethnography is an independent science, which answers the questions: what peoples live on Earth? How did they originate and how do they settle? What kind of dwellings do they build? What languages are spoken? And many such other questions.

    The word "ethnography" comes from the Greek ethnos, which means "people, nation," and -graphia, which means "writing." Thus, ethnographic studies focus on large cultural groups of people who interact over time.

    The main subject of the study of ethnography is the study of the peoples of the world and their various constituent cultures and historical development. An important place in the study of ethnography is also occupied by the study of ethnogenesis - the history of the emergence of ethnic groups and the formation of social institutions. Recently, special attention has been paid to interethnic relations.

    The object of the study of ethnography is ethnos.

    Who is an ethnographer?
    An ethnographer is a specialist who studies the ethnic group of peoples, their customs, origins, cultural, economic, political and other features. As a rule, ethnographers specialize in a particular ethnic group rather than in ethnography as a whole.

    Ethnography, like any science, has certain research methods.

    The following methods are usually used during field ethnographic research:

    Observation - a method in which the ethnographer gets into the environment under study. Here we distinguish a simple observation or observation from the outside and internal, when the researcher takes part in the life of the people under study.
    Survey - a method of collecting primary information. The ethnographer first draws up a series of questions, and then talks about it with the inhabitants.
    Questionnaire - a method in which the ethnographer talks to the informant not in person, but with the help of a questionnaire.
    interview - a face-to-face interview using a questionnaire.
    vestiges method - the study of phenomena that remain with the peoples, but have lost their original meaning.
    Comparative-functional method allows by comparison to identify common features in the development of peoples, as well as their causes.
    Forms of ethnography
    There are different forms of ethnography: confessional ethnography; life history; feminist ethnography, etc.

    Let's elaborate on the following forms:

    Digital ethnography is seen as virtual ethnography. Digital ethnography provides many more ways to look at different cultures and societies. Traditional ethnography may use video or images, but digital ethnography goes deeper. For example, digital ethnographers will use social media platforms so that people's interactions and behaviors can be studied.

    Relational ethnography formulates the study of fields, not places or processes. This means that relational ethnography takes neither a limited group, nor an object that is defined by its general social characteristics, nor a particular location confined to the boundaries of a particular field. Rather, it takes processes that involve configurations of relationships between different institutions or agents.

    Critical ethnography is a study in which creators advocate the liberation of groups marginalized in society. Critical researchers tend to be politically minded people who seek to speak out against inequality and domination.

    Remember, in today's world it is essential to understand those around you, to have certain experiences, skills and practices of inter-ethnic communication in order to avoid misunderstandings or conflict situations.

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